I’m Indrek Maripuu. Coming from Estonia. Very simply put, creative thinking is
ability to find new ideas. Simple as that. And design thinking is ability to look at the problems or solutions from, let’s say, customers’ point of view. It doesn’t mean always that it
is customer in the business meaning. But I guess I will use this verb all day long. Meaning people who go to movies, meaning people who are watching movies. So, the word comes from
business world but don’t hesitate. Because design thinking is… I think it’s the way of exploring the world, of understanding the world. It’s not something what belongs
only to business world. I will give these slides later, so no need to write it down. You will get these in pdf files exactly as they are And if you want to use them, use them wherever you want, how many times you want. Share them wherever you want,
it’s totally free. OK, I wanted to start with some,
let’s say, easy exercises. To warm us up somehow. It’s a very old picture drawn
in the beginning of last century. And the question is very easy –
what do you see in this picture? – Duck…
– I see rabbit or duck. Yes, duck or rabbit.
Depends on where it is looking. If it is looking this way, then it’s a duck
and if this way then it’s a rabbit. Do you see both of them? So, most of people can see both duck and rabbit
if they know that they both are there. But they can’t see both duck
and the rabbit at the same time. I think it’s kind of metaphor
for today’s workshop as well. Because if you’re looking for problem
in this design thinking world, you can’t look at the problem at the same time from, producer’s point of view and customer point of view. You can switch between those two,
but you can’t see them both at the same time. Or think about both at the same time. So, the tools what we are going to use today are important to make these switches. Joseph Jastrow saw it. In the end of XIX century and
it was the first picture of this kind. Nowadays you can google and you’ll find hundreds of these pictures which are two pictures at the same time. But this was one of the first. Very shortly, my background
is actually in the business world. But I would like to think that not anymore. We started our company 15 years ago.
Me and my wife. It was accounting company in the beginning,
but it transformed pretty fast into… Let’s say, some kind of consulting company. We had an aim to become the
biggest consulting company in Estonia. Which we did. And I found that it was the most silly target what a man could have. At least for me. It wasn’t nice at all. It meant that we had… And the biggest in Estonia doesn’t mean that you have to be big. Because it’s such a small country,
as you know. But we were 20 people.
And when we started our company I really really liked that I can
start my working days more or less when I want. And I don’t have to, you know,
report to someone, etc. But suddenly, when we were big enough I found that 20 people, that we have to go to the office every morning exactly at the same time, 9 o’clock. So, it wasn’t for me. Five years ago,
we sold our shares in the company. And moved from Tallinn to south of Estonia.
We bought old farmhouse. And now we are trying to build something what
we have called ‘innovation farm’ or ‘idea farm’. So, it’s a place where teams can come and,
more or less, do the same thing as we will do today. Today it’s a small part of the field.
But still it’s very similar. So, I think I’m in a kind of
creative business somehow. I don’t know what to call it exactly. So, I understood that you have all met before
and you more or less know each other. But I don’t know. And then…
The most boring part in every… Training or workshop probably is when everyone has to introduce himself or herself.
So I decided to skip it. But. I want to do it, not exactly skip it, but to do it in a different way. So, you will get to know
each other a little bit more. And I’m not asking you
later to report to me. “I’m bla bla bla and
came from bla bla bla”. But, you know, if you present
yourself to your neighbors, I can just hear a little bit here, a little bit there and
have some understanding of who you are. But. So, the funny way,
I thought we are going to do it is Take a pen and a paper.
You have plenty of them on the table. Divide the sheet into four boxes. And for each square describe yourself by drawing a picture. But. There are also topics in each square. ‘Where are you from?’ and
‘What is special about this place?’ And I don’t mean country. I mean the smaller place.
I don’t know. City, village. Wherever you are from or
whatever you want to point out. And what is special about it, everyone can learn something about the place where you are coming from. But you have to draw, remember. What’s you favorite hobby or hobbies? Favorite place on earth. And what are you good at? Or what are you best at. Let’s take no more than
approximately 10 minutes. If everyone is… drawing faster, then we can continue faster
but if not, then we take 15 minutes I’ve had a huge terror of dance before. And you are in film industry,
in kind of creative part of life. But if I use this exercise
with people who are in suits and ties pretty often they say
“This is silly”. “I know how reasonable people act and
this is not reasonable”. So my answer usually is that we don’t
have to be reasonable here today. Because if we are trying to be reasonable
during creativity workshop, then it’s better to end it right away
because there will be no good results anyway. We have to, you know, kind of to turn off this reasonable thinking or rational thinking. And actually you
were doing something… Something very important
for one design thinker. Because what you did was that you were trying to
understand the other person. And that’s exactly what
design thinking is all about. Usually we are thinking that we
understand customers. But very often we don’t. And if it takes time to describe to him or her then actually,
I show you later, we usually stop to early. we think it’s intent enough, but it’s not. I will give you a good example later on. And if someone sometimes says that “I can’t draw” then here is my answer –
I can’t either. But I still do. It went so bad that I even had to
break the rules and I wrote. It really has to be a picture of a bed. Because it’s not. So it’s not important at all
how good you are at drawing. The idea is just to… You know, think a little bit differently, act a little bit differently and try to understand the neighbor. But anyway, it’s not one of the tools.
It’s kind of warm up exercise. But it leads us to this what was mentioned in the scale before, that we all have some kind of patterns in our heads. If a man in tie is here, he is saying “It’s not reasonable, I know how reasonable works and that’s opposite”. Then it’s a pattern.
He knows, he has learned how to behave in some situations and his problem is that sometimes he just doesn’t
understand that the situation is different. And that the old pattern is not good enough anymore, at least in this situation. And actually it’s also scientific
fact that our brains are lazy. Our brains are working in
two different modes. And one of them helps us so to say, to save energy. And this is the lazy mode. This means that brain is trying to take conclusions
as fast as possible. And it will engage only if you push it hard.
Usually it means that we are trying, I don’t know,
some tools so we are making some very specific effort to solve something. And you will see it in
the next few slides as well. And what if this lazy brain is… If it sounds interesting for you then there is one guy who is called Daniel Kahneman. Is this name familiar to someone? No? Well, I can write it down. Daniel Kahneman. Scientist who has studied for more than 40 years how we think and how we take these you know, short ways. And how we actually think we are thinking but actually
we are skipping thinking. We are just taking the answers Oh, I made it wrong… Not “Danien”, it should be “L”. ”Daniel”. So you can google him, you can find several presentations. But you can also find one of his greatest books which is called “Thinking fast, thinking slow”. It’s not that easy really. But it’s interesting. So, if you find it, you can… Decide. If it’s interesting for you or not,
but it’s about how our brain works. In a very… Let’s say, not scientific way,
but in a popular way written book. OK. Probably, you know this exercise. I ask you, which of the dark circles is bigger. They are same. Yes, they are same, but probably,
you know that they are same. Or, if you look at them,
which one seems to be bigger? – The on the left.
– Yeah, exactly. But, if we take away. Now you see that they are equal. OK. It came already, same here. Which one of the smaller squares are darker? The darker one looks smaller. No, it’s not about size, it’s about color now. This one looks darker, yes? – Yes.
– No, wait… No trick here,
I just removed the background. If you don’t believe me, you can come here
and take the background by yourself. And it’s exactly same
with information our brain keeps. Keeps the meaning for the message
depending on the background information. Depending how the information comes to us,
how it is, I don‘t know, packed. Our brain, as I told you, is lazy. It gets impression and makes a conclusion. Impression-conclusion, impression-conclusion,
not much thinking involved in this fast thinking world. There’s a little bit math involved,
but not much. And actually, this is one exercise
directly taken from Kahneman. If a baseball bat and the ball cost 1 dollar and 10 cents, and the bat costs 1 dollar more that the ball, What is the price of the ball? – Ten cents. – Sorry? – Ten cents.
– Ten? Twelve? Ten? Five cents. Yes! Five cents. Do you believe him? Yes. Five cents and one dollar five cents. Very often people are telling 10 cents. I will… We can do the math
later on here. But when this Kahneman used this exercise with students in Harvard business school, approximately 66 percents
of the students say that “Professor, it’s the most easiest exercise you have ever given to us. The answer is 10 cents.” Which is the wrong answer. Right is here. 5 cents. If the ball costs 5 cents,
then the bat costs one dollar and 5 cents. And they together are 1,10. But you say 10 cents, because your brain takes this shorter way. Our brain looks… And we are not even too involved. One number and second number and I
can use them to calculate the third one. 1,10 minus one is ten cents,
so the answer is ten cents. So, we are not thinking that much.
Usually. And it’s called, actually,
“Habitual thinking”. I have picked up two great sentences from people who have been experts in their field. Long time ago. So. “Who the hell wants
to hear actors talk?” From your industry, yes? And if I‘m not mistaken, it was the end of… Time when… You know. We had these… Silent movies. So, he was one of those who
started this Warner Bros studio. He was expert on his field. But what he did wrong was that
he took the experience from the past And tried to… Use only this past experience to understand the future And if we do this… The past experience
is important, absolutely important. But it’s not the only information. And if we only use this ones, very often we miss the new developments,
the new things. And Lord Kelvin. A well known scientist, also. In 1885 he said “Heavier than air flying machines are impossible”. And it didn’t take long before
the first flying machines were invented. And here is a saying of US patent office. Said in the end of XIX century. Said that the patent office of the United
States should be closed down because all possible things
have been invented already. It’s a fact they said it. So, as I told, they were experts,
they were not average “silly people”. They were experts. I’m 100 percent sure that
if someone will look at this tape in 100 years, there will be a lots of this kind of thoughts as well. Because that’s how we,
human beings, are working. We usually take this old pattern and
we think everything will continue as it was. Sometimes it does, sometimes it don‘t.
Those years will tell us. And it makes us plan. OK. It was kind of introduction. We are going to talk mainly about two things,
as I told you before: how to push our brain to find new ideas and how to design, I don’t know,
events or products, or services from customers’ point of view. And actually, those two are so… Tight, so together that it’s Sometimes it’s even maybe
not so easy to understand when we are ending with
one topic and going to another. I have picked for you one case or one problem, or one challenge,
however you want to call it that you’re going to solve.
I will come back to this little bit later but it’s from the film industry.
And I took some statistics which seem
to me that is showing that there is a problem.
But let’s come back to this later. But no magic pill is available, you know,
a creativity tablet that if you take it five days and three times per day
then you are creative or you are design thinker. It’s only tools, what I will give you,
but most important lesson, I guess, is that you have to… You have to use this these tools,
at least two, three or four times before you decide whether they
are good for you or they are not. Because, you know,
the first time as we are here today… It’s like with every tool.
If you take it for the first time, then sometime it works,
but sometimes it’s not working. Make yourself a favor and use them,
let’s say, three times and them make your decision
if they are good for you or not. How do we work? Our workshop is actually divided into… Let’s say, three parts, because
we don’t go into this last one today that much. But… It’s very easy. In the first part we are going to understand the problem. What we are going to solve. And today, as I told you,
I’m giving you the problem. And some background. Most probably you have a background yourself
as well because it comes from your industry. In this part you are
going to generate lots of ideas. We are thirteen, yes? So, there will be, let’s say,
approximately 200 ideas or something. Maybe a little bit less,
maybe a little bit more. Depends on you. In this “Investigator” part, you are going to pick up the ideas,
which you think are worth to work on. And the most important rule,
what usually all of the people know, but no one follows is that in this part,
when we are creating ideas, it’s not a good idea to analyze the ideas or
to criticize or make a selection. All ideas are good here. And here we are going to analyse,
argue, discuss, whatever. To make the selection. Because we are thinking in two different modes.
Also from the creativity point of view. When we are here and trying to create ideas,
then we are using our creative thinking abilitr. Here we are using our
rational thinking ability. And if we are trying to do these two together, then we are switching from
one to another all the time. It’s like trying to drive a car 100 meters this way and 80 meters this way,
100 meters this way and 80 this way. And… It’s not the smartest way, actually. You manage to… To go to some place where you want,
but it’s not the easiest way. And let’s not take this hardest way today. Anyway, as I told you before there are
sometimes people who are trying to be rational,
trying to be reasonable, whatever. It’s not a good idea in this workshop. Because the rational and the creative mind,
they are in, let’s say, some kind of conflict. But I think it’s not an issue here. So don’t hesitate about existing rules or I don’t know, think how
things have been in the past. It’s not for us today. Not before
we are entering the third step. Then we are going to
investigate ideas. And if you think from the beginning
of the workshop that “I found this great idea, best idea”,
then you are in trouble as well. I really like this sentence. “Nothing is more dangerous than one idea
if it’s the only idea you have”. You should have lots of ideas.
Because if you have only one. Then you are like… People, who are in love. They don’t see the… The other sides of the ideas,
the bad sides. They’re going to look only
at the good sides of this one and only idea. Because they have to make clear
for everyone that this is good idea. But if you have plenty of ideas, you can freely choose. So, I said in the beginning that slide
with definitions was most boring,
but here is another boring slide. But I try to, you know, make a picture or drawing out of the process.
So, we are going to generate ideas. Like, “Oh, so many ideas”,
then we are trying to make the short list. It’s kind a rational thinking involved here.
But who would put it in here? It’ not about this kind of
eureka moments when we are waiting for great idea to come but we are working,
making our efforts to build the great ideas. This is the first part,
so observe it. I will give you a problem. By the way, if you are not agreeing with me
or if you have some examples, which you want to tell
everyone then feel free to do it exactly whenever you want to do it. So, let’s try to have kind
of free feeling here. But… It’s actually the statistics from only
US because I didn’t find international statistics. But it’s about sold tickets. And the trend line is going down,
as you see. If you look only at these blue sticks, then maybe it don’t feel that bad. But it is declining all the time.
Probably, you know it very well. And then the question is, if people are not going to cinemas because of,
I don’t know, Netflix or whatever, or is there lot more reasons. And what should cinemas do? I should say…
Or what they are doing, actually. In my opinion. Is that they are trying
to compete against the alternatives when people are
sitting at home and watching movies. They are trying to invest in
technology and to have Better quality and
better sound system, etc. Is this the right way? I guess… Probably not, because they have done it for years already
but ticket sales are still declining. And the question that we are
trying to solve is somehow “Could we bring the
magic back to the cinema?” And I mean the magic that people really would want to go to
cinema more then they do today. We are trying to find ideas
to make this trend line growing. Not continuing declining. So, before we can start
to create ideas we actually have to do something similar what we did in the beginning when you tried to understand your neighbor. We should now try to understand about who we are talking. Who are we talking about. I mean, who is going to cinema? Today. And I want you to have some
discussions in your tables. Just a few minutes, just brief discussions.
We need to collect ideas you have in table. No right or wrong answers here,
but your understanding is important. In few minutes I want both tables to say
and I will just write down. And then we will decide how we will continue.
It will depend on your feedback. So, a few minutes to discuss
“Who is going to cinema today?” And what’s important about them or
how to understand them. Like, for me, yeah? I guess I started to
hear something somewhere. Usually, it’s not now
about this exercise. I just picked an example,
how, let’s say, We will come back to
this In a few minutes. but just picked up how usually
old school marketers describe the Let’s say, target groups. Male, born in bla bla bla or older than
or between this and this age. Let’s say, I don’t know. Married for the second time, successful, loves dogs. Bla bla bla. My question is:
“Is it good or bad?” That will give us the idea
who we’re talking about. Marketers think it does. I put here two pictures. Both of them you can
describe by these. And let’s see if they are similar.
Or not. OK, it’s a… I tried to pick as different
personalities a possible. But it’s Ozzy Osbourne. A rock star. Old one. And Prince Charles. Both are male. Both are born in 1948 in England. Both are married for the second time. I ‘d say, they’re both successful. And they both love dogs. And there was even more.
I guess they both have said, at least once, that they like to spend
their holidays in Alps. And some more issues.
I thought it’s already enough. What I’m trying to… What I’m trying to find out is that if we read only this then it feels that we know who are we talking about. But I’m sure they have different… I can’t find the right word.
I mean… They like different things. For sure. Probably, there are some things what they both like but… If we what them to get to the movie then… I think there are some different
ways what you have to use. And just to give you one more exercise. Two more exercises. I will show you one video here. It might be that someone
has seen it before, because… there are several versions of it, you can find them on Youtube and someone probably has seen it before. But let’s say it this way,
if you have seen it, don’t say that “I found so”
or any hints to other people here. And… There is a point I’ll show you this but
I will come back to the point a little bit later. There is some sound but
actually the sound is not important at all. Or probably it should. Or maybe we should have it
just to have a right feeling, but there is nothing what you maybe have to listen to. Maybe the song is
off on youtube. Yes, here. OK. So it’s only… A few minutes or… One minute, twenty one seconds. It’s kind of test. You have to count how many times the players,
who are wearing white Pass the basketball to each other. Just count. Fifteen? Did someone get different answer? OK. But actually this is not the point. 15 is correct, but… Did you see the gorilla? – No.
– No. Who saw the gorilla? – I did.
– I did. OK. About half of you. I’ve seen something similar, so I… Yeah, so you were kind of prepared. OK. But the ones who haven’t seen before see
and who didn’t see the gorilla right now. I didn’t see that. I saw the gorilla because I didn’t count. You can’t do two things at the same time
and you put your focus to somewhere. And then you lose everything what is,
you know, out of your reach. My point is, with this video, that if we are on the very common level or if we are thinking that we
know who they are, if we read this then we
imagine a picture, usually. Usually not this one. Maybe not even this one.
Maybe somewhere between those two. But we start to think
in a very narrow frame. And now I want to come back to this. Because, actually, here was some groups, like teenagers, like… film lovers, like, couples, etc. Our goal now is this next exercise
which goes actually up to… OK. I thought we have time up to the lunch time, but we’ll see, maybe it goes faster. Each try to understand
each of those groups. Maybe a little bit more, to make clear that
we don’t miss too much information. For sure, we are going to miss information anyway
or things that are going around us. But if we… If we are more clear whom we are talking about,
then we decrease the level of what we miss. So, I want you to pick 3 or 4 most important groups of cinema visitors. And the most important it’s… It’s up to you, who you
think are most important for… For cinema in the future, let’s say. And future starts today. So, don’t think that much
about yesterday who WERE the most important groups. Maybe some of them are also in the
future but you try to figure out. Who are the most potential groups to visit cinema also tomorrow and the day after tomorrow and etc. And then I want to give you… Tour to what design thinkers are using
and it’s actually called “empathy map”. I would really prefer if you took a big piece of paper and made this kind of canvas for every single group. You can write the name of the group here. And then… Divide your understanding
in four different groups. What do they think? And don’t think about cinema,
but about the world. How they understand the world? What they see in the world? In what community they belong?
What is important for them? What’s around them? What do they do in
their everyday life? For work, for hobbies… I don’t know. Different activities. What do they hear? What kind of music or who are… Who are opinion leaders for them. Etc.
So, you are trying really to go into their heads. And if you say that teenagers are one of the important groups, for example, it don’t have to be, but if you decide it is, then you should do one of these canvases for teenagers. If you say that couples is one
important target group, you do one for them as well. Thank you.