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Translator: Timothy Covell
Reviewer: Morton Bast Well when I was asked to do this TEDTalk, I was really chuckled, because, you see, my father’s name was Ted, and much of my life, especially my musical life, is really a talk that I’m still having with him, or the part of me that he continues to be. Now Ted was a New Yorker, an all-around theater guy, and he was a self-taught illustrator and musician. He didn’t read a note, and he was profoundly hearing impaired. Yet, he was my greatest teacher. Because even through the squeaks of his hearing aids, his understanding of music was profound. And for him, it wasn’t so much the way the music goes as about what it witnesses and where it can take you. And he did a painting of this experience, which he called “In the Realm of Music.” Now Ted entered this realm every day by improvising in a sort of Tin Pan Alley style like this. (Music) But he was tough when it came to music. He said, “There are only two things that matter in music: what and how. And the thing about classical music, that what and how, it’s inexhaustible.” That was his passion for the music. Both my parents really loved it. They didn’t know all that much about it, but they gave me the opportunity to discover it together with them. And I think inspired by that memory, it’s been my desire to try and bring it to as many other people as I can, sort of pass it on through whatever means. And how people get this music, how it comes into their lives, really fascinates me. One day in New York, I was on the street and I saw some kids playing baseball between stoops and cars and fire hydrants. And a tough, slouchy kid got up to bat, and he took a swing and really connected. And he watched the ball fly for a second, and then he went, “Dah dadaratatatah. Brah dada dadadadah.” And he ran around the bases. And I thought, go figure. How did this piece of 18th century Austrian aristocratic entertainment turn into the victory crow of this New York kid? How was that passed on? How did he get to hear Mozart? Well when it comes to classical music, there’s an awful lot to pass on, much more than Mozart, Beethoven or Tchiakovsky. Because classical music is an unbroken living tradition that goes back over 1,000 years. And every one of those years has had something unique and powerful to say to us about what it’s like to be alive. Now the raw material of it, of course, is just the music of everyday life. It’s all the anthems and dance crazes and ballads and marches. But what classical music does is to distill all of these musics down, to condense them to their absolute essence, and from that essence create a new language, a language that speaks very lovingly and unflinchingly about who we really are. It’s a language that’s still evolving. Now over the centuries it grew into the big pieces we always think of, like concertos and symphonies, but even the most ambitious masterpiece can have as its central mission to bring you back to a fragile and personal moment — like this one from the Beethoven Violin Concerto. (Music) It’s so simple, so evocative. So many emotions seem to be inside of it. Yet, of course, like all music, it’s essentially not about anything. It’s just a design of pitches and silence and time. And the pitches, the notes, as you know, are just vibrations. They’re locations in the spectrum of sound. And whether we call them 440 per second, A, or 3,729, B flat — trust me, that’s right — they’re just phenomena. But the way we react to different combinations of these phenomena is complex and emotional and not totally understood. And the way we react to them has changed radically over the centuries, as have our preferences for them. So for example, in the 11th century, people liked pieces that ended like this. (Music) And in the 17th century, it was more like this. (Music) And in the 21st century … (Music) Now your 21st century ears are quite happy with this last chord, even though a while back it would have puzzled or annoyed you or sent some of you running from the room. And the reason you like it is because you’ve inherited, whether you knew it or not, centuries-worth of changes in musical theory, practice and fashion. And in classical music we can follow these changes very, very accurately because of the music’s powerful silent partner, the way it’s been passed on: notation. Now the impulse to notate, or, more exactly I should say, encode music has been with us for a very long time. In 200 B.C., a man named Sekulos wrote this song for his departed wife and inscribed it on her gravestone in the notational system of the Greeks. (Music) And a thousand years later, this impulse to notate took an entirely different form. And you can see how this happened in these excerpts from the Christmas mass “Puer Natus est nobis,” “For Us is Born.” (Music) In the 10th century, little squiggles were used just to indicate the general shape of the tune. And in the 12th century, a line was drawn, like a musical horizon line, to better pinpoint the pitch’s location. And then in the 13th century, more lines and new shapes of notes locked in the concept of the tune exactly, and that led to the kind of notation we have today. Well notation not only passed the music on, notating and encoding the music changed its priorities entirely, because it enabled the musicians to imagine music on a much vaster scale. Now inspired moves of improvisation could be recorded, saved, considered, prioritized, made into intricate designs. And from this moment, classical music became what it most essentially is, a dialogue between the two powerful sides of our nature: instinct and intelligence. And there began to be a real difference at this point between the art of improvisation and the art of composition. Now an improviser senses and plays the next cool move, but a composer is considering all possible moves, testing them out, prioritizing them out, until he sees how they can form a powerful and coherent design of ultimate and enduring coolness. Now some of the greatest composers, like Bach, were combinations of these two things. Bach was like a great improviser with a mind of a chess master. Mozart was the same way. But every musician strikes a different balance between faith and reason, instinct and intelligence. And every musical era had different priorities of these things, different things to pass on, different ‘whats’ and ‘hows’. So in the first eight centuries or so of this tradition the big ‘what’ was to praise God. And by the 1400s, music was being written that tried to mirror God’s mind as could be seen in the design of the night sky. The ‘how’ was a style called polyphony, music of many independently moving voices that suggested the way the planets seemed to move in Ptolemy’s geocentric universe. This was truly the music of the spheres. (Music) This is the kind of music that Leonardo DaVinci would have known. And perhaps its tremendous intellectual perfection and serenity meant that something new had to happen — a radical new move, which in 1600 is what did happen. (Music) Singer: Ah, bitter blow! Ah, wicked, cruel fate! Ah, baleful stars! Ah, avaricious heaven! MTT: This, of course, was the birth of opera, and its development put music on a radical new course. The what now was not to mirror the mind of God, but to follow the emotion turbulence of man. And the how was harmony, stacking up the pitches to form chords. And the chords, it turned out, were capable of representing incredible varieties of emotions. And the basic chords were the ones we still have with us, the triads, either the major one, which we think is happy, or the minor one, which we perceive as sad. But what’s the actual difference between these two chords? It’s just these two notes in the middle. It’s either E natural, and 659 vibrations per second, or E flat, at 622. So the big difference between human happiness and sadness? 37 freakin’ vibrations. So you can see in a system like this there was enormous subtle potential of representing human emotions. And in fact, as man began to understand more his complex and ambivalent nature, harmony grew more complex to reflect it. Turns out it was capable of expressing emotions beyond the ability of words. Now with all this possibility, classical music really took off. It’s the time in which the big forms began to arise. And the effects of technology began to be felt also, because printing put music, the scores, the codebooks of music, into the hands of performers everywhere. And new and improved instruments made the age of the virtuoso possible. This is when those big forms arose — the symphonies, the sonatas, the concertos. And in these big architectures of time, composers like Beethoven could share the insights of a lifetime. A piece like Beethoven’s Fifth basically witnessing how it was possible for him to go from sorrow and anger, over the course of a half an hour, step by exacting step of his route, to the moment when he could make it across to joy. (Music) And it turned out the symphony could be used for more complex issues, like gripping ones of culture, such as nationalism or quest for freedom or the frontiers of sensuality. But whatever direction the music took, one thing until recently was always the same, and that was when the musicians stopped playing, the music stopped. Now this moment so fascinates me. I find it such a profound one. What happens when the music stops? Where does it go? What’s left? What sticks with people in the audience at the end of a performance? Is it a melody or a rhythm or a mood or an attitude? And how might that change their lives? To me this is the intimate, personal side of music. It’s the passing on part. It’s the ‘why’ part of it. And to me that’s the most essential of all. Mostly it’s been a person-to-person thing, a teacher-student, performer-audience thing, and then around 1880 came this new technology that first mechanically then through analogs then digitally created a new and miraculous way of passing things on, albeit an impersonal one. People could now hear music all the time, even though it wasn’t necessary for them to play an instrument, read music or even go to concerts. And technology democratized music by making everything available. It spearheaded a cultural revolution in which artists like Caruso and Bessie Smith were on the same footing. And technology pushed composers to tremendous extremes, using computers and synthesizers to create works of intellectually impenetrable complexity beyond the means of performers and audiences. At the same time technology, by taking over the role that notation had always played, shifted the balance within music between instinct and intelligence way over to the instinctive side. The culture in which we live now is awash with music of improvisation that’s been sliced, diced, layered and, God knows, distributed and sold. What’s the long-term effect of this on us or on music? Nobody knows. The question remains: What happens when the music stops? What sticks with people? Now that we have unlimited access to music, what does stick with us? Well let me show you a story of what I mean by “really sticking with us.” I was visiting a cousin of mine in an old age home, and I spied a very shaky old man making his way across the room on a walker. He came over to a piano that was there, and he balanced himself and began playing something like this. (Music) And he said something like, “Me … boy … symphony … Beethoven.” And I suddenly got it, and I said, “Friend, by any chance are you trying to play this?” (Music) And he said, “Yes, yes. I was a little boy. The symphony: Isaac Stern, the concerto, I heard it.” And I thought, my God, how much must this music mean to this man that he would get himself out of his bed, across the room to recover the memory of this music that, after everything else in his life is sloughing away, still means so much to him? Well, that’s why I take every performance so seriously, why it matters to me so much. I never know who might be there, who might be absorbing it and what will happen to it in their life. But now I’m excited that there’s more chance than ever before possible of sharing this music. That’s what drives my interest in projects like the TV series “Keeping Score” with the San Francisco Symphony that looks at the backstories of music, and working with the young musicians at the New World Symphony on projects that explore the potential of the new performing arts centers for both entertainment and education. And of course, the New World Symphony led to the YouTube Symphony and projects on the internet that reach out to musicians and audiences all over the world. And the exciting thing is all this is just a prototype. There’s just a role here for so many people — teachers, parents, performers — to be explorers together. Sure, the big events attract a lot of attention, but what really matters is what goes on every single day. We need your perspectives, your curiosity, your voices. And it excites me now to meet people who are hikers, chefs, code writers, taxi drivers, people I never would have guessed who loved the music and who are passing it on. You don’t need to worry about knowing anything. If you’re curious, if you have a capacity for wonder, if you’re alive, you know all that you need to know. You can start anywhere. Ramble a bit. Follow traces. Get lost. Be surprised, amused inspired. All that ‘what’, all that ‘how’ is out there waiting for you to discover its ‘why’, to dive in and pass it on. Thank you. (Applause)

100 thoughts on “Michael Tilson Thomas: Music and emotion through time

  1. A world class composer on to explain nothing more profound than Grade 2 theory, and not in a particularly interesting/original way… TED standards are falling by the day.

  2. When we speak we use music of voice (variation in pitch and tempo) to convey our emotion to our listeners. Even people who do not speak a particular language understand the emotion conveyed by music of voice in that language, vocal expression of emotion is as universally understood as facial expression has already been been shown to be.
    When we speak we shape our throat and mouth to filter out most of the frequencies our voice makes leaving behind "chords" (vowels), successions of these chords along with percussive noises (consonants) make words. A simple mouth bow, common in the aboriginal world can make a vocal chord tone, a string tone and a vocal cavity resonance tone all under the players control, chords.
    Written music went from having a religious function to a royal function to a popular function but most music was not written and did not follow this progression, the music of the street may have sounded more like Beethoven in the middle ages than like the church music that was written down, Beethoven himself cited popular music as an inspiration.
    The advantage of improvisation is emotional intimacy, emotion operates in real time, the disadvantage is little chance for corrections or retractions, the Advantage of composition is every chance to edit and experiment first, without pressure, the disadvantage is a possible loss of emotional authenticity, this is why great artists usually master both improvisation and composition, then one can find the best of both worlds and avoid the worst
    I feel that many modern composers, such as Duke Ellington, do not get all the credit that is due, to me he seems a great composer too just like Beethoven
    although styles change with time I've not yet heard anything but small differences era to era or culture to culture, it all sounds musical to me, I have yet to hear anything but perhaps some rare academic or ritual music which sounded unmusical to me, all the rest sounds emotionally accessible so style stays within limits , there are inherent universal similarities between all forms of popular music.
    When people watch movies they tend to be open minded to any form of music, but once out of the theater they revert to close minded preferences, music serves political ends, it identifies what group we belong to, so musical preference is not really just about the musical content but about social identity issues.

  3. waitadamnminute. Why does the title refer to "Music" rather than European classical music? Not surprisingly, this guy goes on and on, as if forgetting that music was not created by European composers. Listening to him drone about how "music" sounded in centuries, and how the theory has changed over centuries, with snippets only of European classical composer's music, I could not even laugh. As pliant, pseudo-informative and effervescent as the talk comes across, it also drips with Eurocentric arrogance. How did the kid in New York city get to hear music from the 18th century, as if revealing some proof of the superhuman power of the music? Improvisation and composition being a cornerstone reserved for Euro classical music? Just listen to this wordgasm that ascribes everything from intelligence to deistic properties to it. I wonder why Classical's boring nature has not withstood time, against the direction of global popular music's trajectory. E natural at 659 vibrations vs E flat at 622 defines the big difference of human, let me repeat it, HUMAN happiness and sadness, according to this exuberant guy? Is that not where the boat is simply missed? Listening to this you'd think classical artist are filling stadia the world over, in sheer irresistible nature of the music. Hello. Here is something to blow ya mind. Go study where music is going to and where that movement came and is coming from. Some Classical compositions are still worth listening to, yes. They do not compete, in their task, as music is globally democratized, and they definitely do not encompass human musical exploration of the subject. It also, definitely is not the better of them. heh.

  4. One of the great things about Michael Tilson Thomas is that he is a great teacher of music. In the tradition of Bernstein, his mentor, Thomas conducted the Young People's Concerts and has offered many insights into classical music. Along with Leonard Slatkin, he is a teacher-conductor of the highest tradition. I always enjoy hearing what he has to say..

  5. Interesting talk. But, as usual, the history is incomplete, and thus inaccurate, as we only talk of music that has been written, and we do not know the rest, but as we might imagine, most of it wasn't. But what is most inaccurate is the interpretation of written music of the past, the further back in time we go, the less we know how to play it. Even if the research is done, how can we really know?

  6. Great talk! Also found this talk inspiring about how the concert format itself impact the way we behave and listen – https://youtu.be/Uf_1PiyVuPQ

  7. trying really hard to see this BUT FOR GOD SAKES DRINK SOME WATER BEFORE SMACKING SALIVA NEAR THE MIC!…………..

  8. Bravo! Good teaching, in the tradition of the Bernstein music lectures. Please continue with another incarnation of "Young People's Concerts." Much needed to generate new audiences. Thank you

  9. Had the thought that they need me where I am, yet would happily embrace my joining them. Not sure why or what it means. Pretty sure my eyes were shining, Thank you.

  10. Excellent. Reminds me of Bernstein's lectures at Harvard years ago. I am lifted by the complexity and moods of the music I listen to all day long.

  11. He completely deleted the last 100 years of academic music from the talk! The chord he played as saying belongs to present time is a jazz chord, so he is making a comparison between classical and popular. Never mentioned Schoenberg or Stravinsky or Boulez…whether you like them or not they are part of contemporary classical music. So he talks about technology but seems to be talking about popular music. It's all very confusing and uninformative, catered to ignorant audiences who only seem to know Beethoven.

  12. Those horrible out of tune thirds would not have been acceptable in either the eleventh or seventeenth centuries!

  13. I enjoyed your talk. One of the intriguing ways music is used is in the field of therapy for guided imagery in PTSD, Cancer, and Stress Reduction 💞

  14. Why can't TED afford a clip microphone, the type that's been used universally since the 1970s? Where did this awful fashion of the headset come from? Not only it simply looks terrible (like a cyst growing on the cheek) but it also make audible and amplifies all the person's mouth sounds, it's quite unsettling and distracting. Why is the wheel being replaced by a non-working anti-gravity machine?

  15. Michael is amazing and inspirational. I had the very fortunate experience to work with him. Amazing musician and human. Great TED talk.

  16. Minor chords are not sadder than major chords! Anyway, there are 4 major scales and 4 minor scales in the Greek folk music system and they are a subset of the broader maqam system of Arabic, Turkish, Kurdish/Assyrian and Persian/Armenian which have half sharps and half flats (that end up making 3/4 note intervals. Now they can show an even broader range of emotions that Western Classical (or other Western music)!

  17. Wonderful presentation. I am so thankful I was exposed to classical music as a kid, mostly through hearing my mother’s albums. By high school I had begun acquiring some classical CDs of my own. Of course I had plenty of other music, too, and still do. But as the years have gone by I could dispense with most of it. I’d be perfectly happy with just my classical collection for the rest of my life.

  18. We were lucky to have MTT as music director for eight years with the Buffalo Philharmonic when he was a young man. His being only three years older than me, I felt a connection, someone of my generation to watch, listen, and learn from. He was like a young classical music rock star then that didn't always follow all the rules and that made a lot of young people take notice.

  19. the audience is like: "Huh. I don't understand your jokes about 19th century stuff. So we're just gonna sit here quietly." Makes me wonder who actually pays to attend these things. The 1%ers hoping to get a kick of inspiration or raison d'être… good luck. You're lost forever……………………………………………………….

  20. I love ted talks but go back to using lavalier mics. I can't stand all the spit noise of the mics TED usually uses. I frequently quit watching half way through because I can't stand the mouth noise from these mics.

  21. (guest)
    16 minutes 50 seconds:
    the old boy trying to play a remembered melody :
    Many dementia patients " come back to life" when encouraged to sing a song they knew years ago.
    There's something about music which touches , and remains in , the very core of your being….
    Playing, singing or sharing music can be an extraordinarily rewarding experience.
    ☺🇬🇧☺ .

  22. Thank you! This made me remember my father, who was a veterinarian, and passed the music on to us, his children and his wife. Beethoven was his very favorite. I remember seeing him crying while listening to his great collection.

  23. Yes the range of human emotion. Some listen and hear how the planets move in our solar system. Others create it to express sexual desires. Many have tried to weaponize music but they will always fail.

  24. THE next cool move doesn't exist. There are infinite next choices outside of the context of what one considers 'cool' sir…

  25. The music can't stop, when 10 billion of us are with The One!! Groovism is the belief in the healing power of music!! As foreseen humanity will unite on our proliferating instinct….. music!! Technology has made this possible & has enlightened all, to the the Oneness of all !!!! The Earth is aging quickly, Humanity needs a miraculous evolutionary creation for us to make happen!! All we got to do is Be with The One Groove!!! www.groovism.org will provide The One, soon to stream 24/7!!!

  26. Imagine you're trying to remember a piece you heard awhile ago and all the sudden Michael Tilson Thomas hops around the corner and says "by any chance are you trying to play this?"

  27. It's wonderful to see so much interest in this talk!! Classical music is slowly dying away from part of the American culture; not elsewhere in the world, but here. There is so much depth and wonder in great music. It's inspiration waiting to be discovered!!

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